A basic understanding of the life cycle of a fern is essential for the successful propagation of ferns from
Ferns do not flower but reproduce sexually from spores.
There are two distinct stages of the fern life cycle. Mature plants produce spores on the underside of the
leaves. When these germinate they grow into small heart-shaped plants known as prothalli. Male and
female cells are produced on these plants and after fertilization occurs the adult fern begins to develop.
More informative information on Tawapou Coastal Natives website at www.tawapou.co.nz/about-native-plants/the-poor-knights-lily-xeronema-callistemon